Archive for the 'Peer Review' category

Theological waccaloons win because they are powered by religious fervor and exhaust normal people

Feb 14 2018 Published by under Open Access, Peer Review, Scientific Publication

Some self-congratulatory meeting of the OpenAccess Illuminati* took place recently and a summary of takeaway points has been posted by Stephen Curry (the other one).

These people are exhausting. They just keep bleating away with their talking points and refuse entirely to ever address the clear problems with their plans.

Anonymous peer review exists for a reason.

To hear them tell it, the only reason is so hateful incompetent reviewers can prevent their sterling works of genius from being published right away.

This is not the reason for having anonymous peer review in science.

Their critics regularly bring up the reason we have anonymous peer review and the virtues of such an approach. The OA Illuminati refuse to address this. At best they will vaguely acknowledge their understanding of the issue and then hand wave about how it isn't a problem just ...um...because they say so.

It's also weird that 80%+ of their supposed problems with peer review as we know it are attributable to their own participation in the Glamour Science game. Some of them also see problems with GlamHumping but they never connect the dots to see that Glamming is the driver of most of their supposed problems with peer review as currently practiced.

Which tells you a lot about how their real goals align with the ones that they talk about in public.

Edited to add:
Professor Curry weighed in on twitter to insist that the goal is not to force everyone to sign reviews. See, his plan allows people to opt out if they choose. This is probably even worse for the goal of getting an even-handed and honest review of scientific papers. And even more tellingly, is designing the experiment so that it cannot do anything other than provide evidence in support of their hypothesis. Neat trick.

Here's how it will go down. People will sign their reviews when they have "nice, constructive" things to say about the paper. BSDs, who are already unassailable and are the ones self-righteously saying they sign all their reviews now, will continue to feel free to be dicks. And the people** who feel that attaching their name to their true opinion will still feel pressure. To not review, to soft-pedal and sign or to supply an unsigned but critical review. All of this is distorting.

Most importantly for the open-review fans, it will generate a record of signed reviews that seem wonderfully constructive or deserved (the Emperor's, sorry BSDs, critical pants are very fine indeed) and a record of seemingly unconstructive critical unsigned reviews (which we can surely dismiss because they are anonymous cowards). So you see? It proves the theory! Open reviews are "better" and anonymous reviews are mean and unjustified. It's a can't-miss bet for these people.

The choice to not-review is significant. I know we all like to think that "obvious flaws" would occur to anyone reading a paper. That's nonsense. Having been involved in manuscript and grant review for quite some time now I am here to tell you that the assigned reviewers (typically 3) all provide unique insight. Sometimes during grant review other panel members see other things the three assigned people missed and in manuscript review the AE or EIC see something. I'm sure you could do parallel sets of three reviewers and it would take quite a large sample before every single concern has been identified. Comparing this experience to the number of comments that are made in all of the various open-commenting systems (PubMed Commons commenting system was just shuttered for lack of general interest by the way) and we simply cannot believe claims that any reviewer can be omitted*** with no loss of function. Not to mention the fact that open commenting systems are just as subject to the above discussed opt-in problems as are signed official review systems of peer review.
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*hosted at HHMI headquarters which I’m sure tells us nothing about the purpose

**this is never an all-or-none associated with reviewer traits. It will be a manuscript-by-manuscript choice process which makes it nearly impossible to assess the quelling and distorting effect this will have on high quality review of papers.

***yes, we never have an overwhelmingly large sample of reviewers. The point here is the systematic distortion.

26 responses so far

NIH encourages pre-prints

In March of 2017 the NIH issued a notice on Reporting Preprints and Other Interim Research Products (NOT-OD-17-050): "The NIH encourages investigators to use interim research products, such as preprints, to speed the dissemination and enhance the rigor of their work.".

The key bits:

Interim Research Products are complete, public research products that are not final.

A common form is the preprint, which is a complete and public draft of a scientific document. Preprints are typically unreviewed manuscripts written in the style of a peer-reviewed journal article. Scientists issue preprints to speed dissemination, establish priority, obtain feedback, and offset publication bias.

Another common type of interim product is a preregistered protocol, where a scientist publicly declares key elements of their research protocol in advance. Preregistration can help scientists enhance the rigor of their work.

I am still not happy about the reason this happened (i.e., Glam hounds trying to assert scientific priority in the face of the Glam Chase disaster they themselves created) but this is now totally beside the point.

The NIH policy (see OpenMike blog entry for more) has several implications for grant seekers and grant holders which are what form the critical information for your consideration, Dear Reader.

I will limit myself here to materials that are related to standard paper publishing. There are also implications for materials that would never be published (computer code?) but that is beyond the scope for today's discussion.

At this point I will direct you to bioRxiv and PsyRxiv if you are unfamiliar with some of the more popular approaches for pre-print publication of research manuscripts.

The advantages to depositing your manuscripts in a pre-print form are all about priority and productivity, in my totally not humble opinion. The former is why the Glamour folks are all a-lather but priority and scooping affect all of us a little differently. As most of you know, scooping and priority is not a huge part of my professional life but all things equal, it's better to get your priority on record. In some areas of science it is career making/breaking and grant getting/rejecting to establish scientific priority. So if this is a thing for your life, this new policy allows and encourages you to take advantage.

I'm more focused on productivity. First, this is an advantage for trainees. We've discussed the tendency of new scientists to list manuscripts "in preparation" on their CV or Biosketch (for fellowship applications, say, despite it being technically illegal). This designation is hard to evaluate. A nearing-defense grad student who has three "in prep" manuscripts listed on the CV can appear to be bullshitting you. I always caution people that if they list such things they had better be prepared to send a prospective post-doc supervisor a mostly-complete draft. Well, now the pre-print allows anyone to post "in preparation" drafts so that anyone can verify the status. Very helpful for graduate students who have a short timeline versus the all too typical cycle of submission/rejection/resubmission/revision, etc. More importantly, the NIH previously frowned on listing "in preparation" or "in review" items on the Biosketch. This was never going to result in an application being returned unreviewed but it could sour the reviewers. And of course any rule followers out there would simply not list any such items, even if there was a minor revision being considered. With pre-print deposition and the ability to list on a NIH biosketch and cite in the Research Plan there is no longer any vaporware type of situation. The reviewer can look at the pre-print and judge the science for herself.

This applies to junior PIs as well. Most likely, junior PIs will have fewer publications, particularly from their brand new startup labs. The ability of the PI to generate data from her new independent lab can be a key issue in grant review. As with the trainee, the cycle of manuscript review and acceptance is lengthy compared with the typical tenure clock. And of course many junior PIs are trying to balance JIF/Glam against this evidence of independent productivity. So pre-print deposition helps here.

A very similar situation can apply to us not-so-junior PIs who are proposing research in a new direction. Sure, there is room for preliminary data in a grant application but the ability to submit data in manuscript format to the bioRxiv or some such is unlimited! Awesome, right?

15 responses so far

How do you respond to not being cited where appropriate?

Oct 10 2016 Published by under Careerism, Grant Review, Peer Review, Tribe of Science

Have you ever been reading a scientific paper and thought "Gee, they really should have cited us here"?

Never, right?

Continue Reading »

25 responses so far

It is time to eliminate "major revisions" as a manuscript decision

Jun 22 2016 Published by under Peer Review, Science Publication

There should be only three categories of review outcome.

Accept, Reject and Minor Revisions.

Part of the Editorial decision making will have to be whether the experiments demanded by the reviewers are reasonable as "minor" or not. I suggest a lean towards accepting only the most minimal demands for additional experimentation as "minor revisions" and otherwise to choose to reject.

And no more of this back and forth with Editors about what additional work might make it acceptable for the journal as a new submission either.

We are handing over too much power to direct and control the science to other people. It rightfully belongs within your lab and within your circle of key peers.

If J Neuro could take a stand against Supplemental Materials, they and other journals can take a stand on this.

I estimate that the greatest advantage will be the sharp decline in reviewers demanding extra work just because they can.

The second advantage will be with Editors themselves having to select from what is submitted to them, instead of trying to create new papers by holding acceptances at bay until the authors throw down another year of person-work.

56 responses so far

Review unto others

I think I've touched on this before but I'm still seeking clarity.

How do you review?

For a given journal, let's imagine this time, that you sometimes get manuscripts rejected from and sometimes get acceptances.

Do you review manuscripts for that journal as you would like to be reviewed?

Or as you have perceived yourself to have been reviewed?

Do you review according to your own evolved wisdom or with an eye to what you perceive the Editorial staff of the journal desire?

31 responses so far

Is the fact you reviewed this manuscript before confidential?

Apr 15 2016 Published by under Peer Review, Science Publication

Interesting comment from AnonNeuro:

Reviews are confidential, so I don't think you can share that information. Saying "I'll review it again" is the same as saying "I have insider knowledge that this paper was rejected elsewhere". Better to decline the review due to conflict.

I don't think I've ever followed this as a rule. I have definitely told editors when the manuscript has not been revised from a previously critiqued version in the past (I don't say which journal had rejected the authors' work). But I can't say that I invariably mention it either. If the manuscript had been revised somewhat, why bother. If I like it and want to see it published, mentioning I've seen a prior version elsewhere seems counterproductive.

This comment had me pondering my lack of a clear policy.

Maybe we should tell the editor upon accepting the review assignment so that they can decide if they still want our input?

28 responses so far

Revise After Rejection

This mantra, provided by all good science supervisor types including my mentors, cannot be repeated too often.

There are some caveats, of course. Sometimes, for example, when the reviewer wants you to temper your justifiable interpretive claims or Discussion points that interest you.

It's the sort of thing you only need to do as a response to review when it has a chance of acceptance.

Outrageous claims that are going to be bait for any reviewer? Sure, back those down.

17 responses so far

Bias at work

A piece in Vox summarizes a study from Nextions showing that lawyers are more critical of a brief written by an African-American. 

I immediately thought of scientific manuscript review and the not-unusual request to have a revision "thoroughly edited by a native English speaker". My confirmation bias suggests that this is way more common when the first author has an apparently Asian surname.

It would be interesting to see a similar balanced test for scientific writing and review, wouldn't it?

My second thought was.... Ginther. Is this not another one of the thousand cuts contributing to African-American PIs' lower success rates and need to revise the proposal extra times? Seems as though it might be. 

22 responses so far

Thought of the Day

It's not ideal for your summary statement to show up whilst at a meeting attended by many of the people on the review panel.

16 responses so far

Reviewer mindset 

Mar 22 2016 Published by under NIH Careerism, Peer Review

I was just observing that I'd far rather my grants were reviewed by someone who had just received a new grant (or fundable score) than someone who had been denied a few times recently. 

It strikes me that this may not be universal logic.

Thoughts? 

 Is the disgruntled-applicant reviewer going to be sympathetic? Or will he do unto you as he has been done to?

Will the recently-awarded reviewer be in a generous mood? Or will she pull up the ladder? 

25 responses so far

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