Archive for the 'alpha-PVP' category

That may not be nicotine that those kids are vaping with that e-cigarette

May 31 2016 Published by under alpha-PVP, Bath Salts, Cannabis, Drug Abuse Science, Vape

By now most of you are familiar with the huge plume of vapor emitted by a user of an e-cigarette device on the streets. Maybe you walked through it and worried briefly about your second-hand vape exposure risk. Some of you may even have been amused to hear your fellow parents tell you with a straight face that their kids "only vape the vehicle for the flavor". Sure. Ahem.

Nicotine is one thing, but there is also a growing trend to use e-cigarettes to vape marijuana and, allegedly, stimulants such as flakka (alpha-PVP).

As with many emerging drug trends it can be difficult to put solid, peer-reviewed epidemiology on the table to verify these behaviors.

A recent paper reports on some initial estimates on practices among middle- and high-school students.

High School Students' Use of Electronic Cigarettes to Vaporize Cannabis. Morean ME, Kong G, Camenga DR, Cavallo DA, Krishnan-Sarin S. Pediatrics. 2015 Oct;136(4):611-6. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-1727. Epub 2015 Sep 7.[PubMed]

The authors surveyed 5 High Schools and 2 middle schools in Connecticut in the spring of 2014. Apparently insufficient middle school data were obtained so the paper focuses on the high school respondents only.

There were three key questions for the purposes of assessing behavior rates. Students were classified as "never used" or "lifetime used" (for ever having tried at least once) for e-cigarette use, for cannabis use (any method) and for cannabis use with an e-cigarette device.

Out of the total sample of 3847 HS students who completed the entire survey (52% female), about 5.4% had used an e-cigarette to self-administer cannabis. If, however, the sample was limited to those who had ever used an e-cigarette, then 18% had used one to administer cannabis. For lifetime cannabis users, it went to 18.4% and for dual e-cigarette and cannabis users, 26.5%.

So while the majority of high school students who have ever tried cannabis have never tried using an e-cigarette to dose themselves, 20% is a sizeable minority.

As always, it will be most interesting to see where these trends go and how they extend to older user groups. It could be that it is something that kids try and abandon (perhaps due to not learning different inhalation topography necessary for the desired high as with nicotine). It may be that older users are loathe to change their established patterns or see no advantages to e-cigarettes. I anticipate that solid data on these trends will be slow to emerge but I'll be keeping an eye out.

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Relatedly, the research community has been responding to this trend, and I wanted to draw two new papers to your attention.

Marusich and colleagues report from the Wiley group at RTI that they have a new model of flakka (and methamphetamine) delivery that increases locomotor activity and induces place preference in mice.

Pharmacological Effects of Methamphetamine and Alpha-PVP Vapor and Injection, Julie A. Marusich, , Timothy W. Lefever, Bruce E. Blough, Brian F. Thomas, Jenny L. Wiley, 2016, Neurotoxicology, doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2016.05.015

Nguyen and colleagues report from the Taffe group at TSRI that they have a new model of THC delivery that induces hypothermia, hypolocomotion and anti-nociception in rats.

Inhaled delivery of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to rats by e-cigarette vapor technology, Jacques D. Nguyen, Shawn M. Aarde, Sophia A. Vandewater, Yanabel Grant, David G. Stouffer, Loren H. Parsons, Maury Cole, Michael A. Taffe, 2016, Neuropharmacology,doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.05.021

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FLAKKA! (and other failures of the alleged profession of journalism)

Apr 20 2015 Published by under alpha-PVP, Bath Salts, Cathinone, Drug Abuse Science

Flakka is just the latest in a long line of stimulant drugs that can, in some very rare cases, result in astonishing public behavior.

Such as running nude through the streets to escape "unknown people trying to kill him".

Such as trying to kick in the door of a police station to get IN so as to escape cars that were supposedly chasing him.

Such as trying to shoot oneself on a rooftop, naked.

Such as trying to have carnal relations with a tree after proclaiming oneself to be Thor.

These stories are like crack to the mainstream media. They have been telling these stories for years, encompassing public scares over PCP, crack cocaine and methamphetamine over the decades past. More recently we've seen these types of stories about synthetic cathinones, in particular under the generic term "bath salts".

Sprinkled amongst the stories about classical psychomotor stimulant effects, we have stories of overdose involving synthetic opioids, MDMA and/or Molly and stories of adverse psychotropic effects of synthetic cannabinoid products. I've addressed some of these issues in prior posts and for today I want to discuss the stimulants of more traditional effect.

My greatest frustration with the reporting is not actually the breathless sensationalism, although that runs a close second. The biggest problem is the lack of verification of the bizarre behavior (or overdose) being associated with ingestion of the drug that is alleged in the initial reporting. I have not see one single verification of alpha-PVP in the body tissues of these recent Florida cases where the subjects reported consuming Flakka. We still do not know exactly what drugs were consumed by the 11 Wesleyan University students who became ill enough to hospitalize. We don't know what caused the death of Kimchi Truong at last year's Coachella music festival.

Oftentimes there are multiple media reports which, to their credit, mention that toxicology testing will take some weeks to verify. And yet. Rarely is there ever a follow-up accounting. And when there is a followup, well, it gets very poor penetration and people often parrot the wrong information even years later.

The Florida Causeway Cannibal is a case in point. At the time of the initial event it was almost universally reported to be due to "bath salts", i.e. MDPV. Toxicology reporting found no sign of any synthetic cathinone in Mr. Eugene.

It is long past time for us to hold the media as accountable for accuracy and followup on drug-related stories as we do for, say, sports reporting.

Now, there are a couple of bright lights in this generally dismal area of news reporting. Here's a local story that reported MDA, not MDMA, was at blame for a death (although they still screw up, MDA is not a "parent" drug of MDMA). In 2013 there was followup in three music festival deaths in New York to confirm MDMA, methylone and the combination of the two caused the three fatalities. We need this kind of attention paid to all of these cases.

Getting back to the current media storm over "Flakka", which is alpha-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alpha-PVP), I have a few links for you if you are interested in additional reading on this drug.

@forensictoxguy posted a list of scientific papers on alpha-PVP at The Dose Makes the Poison blog. It is not a very long list at present! (Marusich et al, 2014 is probably the place to start your reading.)

The Dose Makes the Poison discussed alpha-PVP back in early 2014....this is not a new 2015 drug by any means.

Michael Taffe from The Scripps Research Institute [PubMed; Lab Site] gives a preview of a paper in press showing alpha-PVP and MDPV are pretty similar to each other in rat self-administration.

There was also a post on the Taffe blog suggesting that alpha-PVP samples submitted to ecstasydata.org were more consistently pure than MDPV and some other street drugs.

Wikipedia, NIDA brief

Jacob Sullum has written a pretty good Opinion piece at Forbes Fear Of Flakka: Anti-Drug Hysteria Validates Itself.

Review of the above information will help you to assess claims in the media that Flakka is "[insert more addictive, more dangerous, more powerful, worse] than [insert bath salts, MDPV, methamphetamine, cocaine]".

tldr; It isn't.

It will also assist you in coming to an understanding that Flakka is likely to be just as addictive and problematic as these previously sensationalized stimulants.

tldr; It is.

In my view, the scope of the Flakka problem over the coming years will be dictated by user popularity and availability, and not by anything particularly unique about the molecular structure of alpha-PVP.

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